Python Get All Values From Nested Dictionary

Ex: MyBook, myBook, mybook, etc. walk Creates a nested dictionary that represents a folder structure. Certainly, the elements in the dictionary are in form of key: value pair. A list is an ordered collection. You can … Continue reading Python 101: Reading and Writing CSV Files →. Nested Dictionary: Nesting Dictionary means putting a dictionary. Value can be almost any Python object. Right? And so you can see here, I say for city in capitals. x unicode object. The specification implies that the order in which items are returned by. I am writing code to edit the field names in a csv file to be imported into ArcMap. get-min-max-from-nested-dictionary # how can i exclude None values ? #get minimum and maximum stock options 36933795/python-getting-min-max-values-from-nested. You can use them to arrange data into hierarchical structures. Write a function that reads the words in words. Python dictionary is un-ordered & cannot be sorted. As you probably read in the first section, lists are sequences, and all instances of Python's sequence types are iterables. If you use Python regularly, then you know that the dictionary data structure is by definition an unsorted mapping type. get a list of all sub lists in a nested list: node of a tree in a dictionary (assumption is that a root node is a key never found in any of all values). Take a key-value pair from the user and store it in separate variables. This is more specific than our previous use. The key & value. If the key exists, then the value of the key is copied into the value for the variable. How do I sort a list of dictionaries by a value of the dictionary? 1043. PEP 484 defines the type Dict[K, V] for uniform dictionaries, where each value has the same type, and arbitrary key values are supported. For example, Python uses iterators in for loops to go over all elements of a list, all characters of a string, or all keys in a dictionary. I am trying to write a python code. The correct answer is easy to get—it’s stored as a value in the capitals dictionary. [see Python: dict={} vs dict. Related Python Topics beta. Consider the sortedcontainers module which is pure-Python and fast-as-C implementations. The Python interpreter can then evaluate these expressions to produce numeric values, making Python a very powerful calculator. , it can be modified in place after it is created. Python list represents a mathematical concept of a finite sequence. Python Dictionary clear() Python Dictionary copy() Python Dictionary fromkeys() Python Dictionary get() Python Dictionary items() Python Dictionary keys() Python Dictionary popitem() Python Dictionary setdefault() Python Dictionary pop() Python Dictionary values() Python Dictionary update(). The following function is an example of flattening JSON recursively. key-value pair: The representation of the mapping from a key to a value. Nested dictionaries are one of many ways to represent structured information (similar to ‘records’ or ‘structs’ in other languages). But for different keys, we can have the same 'value'. Python program that uses all items = [False. The pair is an example of a tuple. For this tutorial, we are using python 3. Get all values from nested dictionaries in python. [code]# A list of the keys of dictionary list_keys = [ k for k in dict ] # or a list of the values list_values = [ v for v in dict. nested dictionary with keys using python. Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus. Ask Question Asked 1 year, 4 months ago. value An object that appears in a dictionary as the second part of a key-value pair. Python comes with a variety of built-in data structures, capable of storing different types of data. This chapter's aim is to get you acquainted with each of these data types. If d is a normal dictionary, then d[key]=value replaces the old value for the given key, if there is one. Nested dictionaries are one of many ways to represent structured information (similar to 'records' or 'structs' in other languages). You can use a method called. If you are looking for examples that work under Python 3, please refer to the PyMOTW-3 section of the site. Enter the following into. Now available for Python 3! Buy the. Conclusion. * docutils/nodes. While similar loops exist in virtually all programming languages, the Python for loop is easier to come to grips with since it reads almost like English. How to create a nested dictionary, and why you might want to create a nested dictionary in python. The aim of this tutorial is to show off Python's data structures and the best way to use them. Python List Examples The order is guaranteed in a list, unlike in a dictionary. We can add, remove or update items in a dictionary. What I want to do is take that dictionary, find the key that has the highest value integer in its list and print the key and the highest value. Original items: dict_values([2, 4, 3]) Updated items: dict_values([4, 3]) The view object values doesn't itself return a list of sales item values but it returns a view of all values of the dictionary. items(): print('{} : {}'. How do I sort a list of dictionaries by a value of the dictionary? 1043. Values in this data structure can be a completers as well. I am trying to compare two nested dictionaries, I want to know what is idea on how to get/set nested python dictionary values; Can dictionaries be nested?. Value interpolation using Python formatting strings is also supported, to build. The Python interpreter can then evaluate these expressions to produce numeric values, making Python a very powerful calculator. Don't understand? Here is the general form that calling a function takes:. (The SSL_MODE Portion of the below listed dictionary) I have d1{key1: val1,. loads() and json. Python dictionaries are immensely flexible because they allow anything to be stored as a value, from primitive types like strings and floats to more complicated types like objects and even other dictionaries (more on this later). We use the keys to access the items from a dictionary. 5 (you'd think there would have been more fanfare!). In ordered lists, it is not possible to continue list numbering automatically from a previous list or to hide numbering of some list items. An object that appears in a dictionary as the first part of a key-value pair. When performing data science tasks, it’s common to want to use data found on the internet. Okay here we are with yet another post. A dictionary is essentially a set of key-value pairs, where, the keys should be unique and immutable. The Python Dictionary object provides a key:value indexing facility. Below is the sample code of the Python Program to add a key-value pair to the dictionary using the update() method. A dictionary is a collection which is unordered, changeable and indexed. I have been using the python dictionary to create a multidimensional array. Description. The first unnest() is to get rid of the top level of the nested list in values and instead have an unnested list containing the 4 values of interest. Is there only one way to get values out safely? try: example_dict['key1']['key2'] except KeyError: pass Or maybe python has a method like get() for nested dict. Python also features functional programming which is very similar to mathematical way of approaching problem where you assign inputs in a function and you get the same output with same input value. All that is to say you can do a lot with Python, and this course will show you just how much. Next, we are going to get some settings, after defining a helper function. When you retrieve a value from the dictionary you are retrieving a dictionary from which you can access the items. The values can be objects of any type (dictionaries can even be nested with other dictionaries) and the keys can be any object so long as it's hashable, meaning basically that it is immutable (so strings are not the only valid keys, but. Here i get a bit confused when you mention "if logScore(score) returned true, score is one of the two lowest scores we've seen so far" > i thought that the job of logscore is to only get second heighest score every time it iterates and this line adds the identified second heigest scores to the dictionary scores with their names **+ [name]. Sorting dictionaries by value in Python is a chronic annoyance. As far as Python is concerned, they are just objects stored using another object, that's all. Modifications to the dictionary do not affect the values of variables. ps1 to Get-Widget. The values of a dictionary can be any Python data type. Nested Dictionary: Nesting Dictionary means putting a dictionary. In this tutorial, I'm going to cover several different types of collections in Python. A python dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. Improved Performance. We look at how to access key value pairs in nested. For example, if I wanted to have a list of 3-d coordinates, the natural python representation would be a list of tuples, where each tuple is size 3 holding one (x, y, z) group. After placing the data into a dictionary, I would like to loop through the data using for. In a similar way, use the method values() to retrieve all the values in the dictionary. In code, a dictionary is typed with braces, {}. Python : Filter a dictionary by conditions on keys or values; Python : 6 Different ways to create Dictionaries; Pandas : Check if a value exists in a DataFrame using in & not in operator | isin() Pandas : Get unique values in columns of a Dataframe in Python; Python : How to Sort a Dictionary by key or Value ? Python : How to get all keys with. The return value from validate will either be True, meaning all present, or a dictionary with False for all missing values/sections. Given a Python dictionary, remove any term whose value is None. It doesn't properly support the common pattern where the type of a dictionary value depends on the string value of the key. how to store data in nested dictionary and retrieve it ? Every time you create a new entry for your dictionary you create a new dictionary as the value item. The function should accommodate nested dictionaries, which occur when the value of a term is another dictionary. Let's say, however, that we don't want the values of the keys in this particular instance. close() on them, which resets them to a clean state. In another Python Patterns column, I will try to analyze their running speed and improve their performance, at the cost of more code. Regardless, I needed a way to sort a nested dictionary (i. The only difference is that each value is another dictionary. $ python json_decoder_object. Syntactically, a tuple is a comma-separated sequence. Remove all items from the dict. They are called lists, tuples and dictionaries. In the Python programming language, the dictionary stores sets of data and is similar to arrays used in other languages, like C. A list is an ordered set of values, where each value is identified by an index. Get length and iterate through nested array. get() Parameters. All keys in a python dictionary should be different. To loop or iterate over each element of a dictionary variable, you have to use the for loop of Python. home, python. for saving in JSON format), you need to write the. Tip: build your own list in the IPython shell that is contained within the above DataCamp Light chunk!. A method is an action that you can take on an object. To describe it simply, CascaDict implements something like class inheritance, but on dictionary-key level. Lists are similar to strings, which are ordered sets of characters, except that the elements of a list can have any type. Remove all items. A python dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. Value: Value is the information or the data. We also know that the get() method fetches the value corresponding to a key. """ options: Dict[str, Optional[Completer]] = {} for key, value in data. Today, we will have a word about Python dictionary which is another type of data structure in Python. Now if you only want to extract or iterate through, say VPCSecurityGroupId of all database instances, then you have to traverse all that nested information which comprises of dictionary consisting of keys which have values as arrays and those arrays have more dictionaries and so on. items(): print(key) for attribute, value in car. Finally, a method that "is the…. Each key-value pair in a. json data is a very common task, no matter if you’re coming from the data science or the web development world. It does not need to be rectangular—some lists can be longer than others. SOrry it took me so long to get back to you. This example uses the Copy-Item cmdlet to copy the Get-Widget. values()' is used to get the values for all keys in the dictionary. Find keys by value in dictionary. Here we'll review JSON parsing in Python so that you can get to the interesting data faster. The tree knows about all of the data in the input. 95, another key may be "Brief" with a value of 14. Tip: All the methods on list, including "len" and "in," work on nested lists. which can contain a 'groups' key inside another 'groups' key. The good news is that Python comes with an built-in help system. Every key and every value is an object. Append value Prepend value Suggested posts: python print examples Python itertools ifilter examples Python dictionary read more Tech tutorials, tips, tools and more. In python, a dictionary can only hold a single value for a given key. If all values in the dictionary are None, it is also possible to: use a set instead. It doesn't properly support the common pattern where the type of a dictionary value depends on the string value of the key. As you can see we can use del following by dictionary name and in square brackets we can specify the key to delete the specified key value pair from dictionary. It was mentioned in an earlier post that there is a difference in how the keys() operation behaves between Python 2 and Python 3. items(): if isinstance (value, Completer): options. Let’s say we want to create a dictionary called phonebook where names will be used as keys and their phone numbers as values to the keys, then our code will be:. Dictionaries¶. Dictionaries cannot have duplicate keys. Numbering continues from the new value for subsequent list items. Create a Nested Dictionary. Now you can chat with who search for : get all key values from dictionary python And Exchange opinions about get all key values from dictionary python. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. However, if you use a relevant data type for that value, you should be able to save multiple values for a single key. python_dictionary. Any help would be appreciated. Tuples and instances of classes are save as long as they don't emulate lists or dictionaries. Dictionaries map keys to values, making key-value pairs that can then store data. 1 Moved to the docutils core from sandbox/html4strict. x), because the order is all derived from the dict iterator (which is presumably arbitrary but stable as long as a dict isn't modified). Dictionaries are Mutable, i. The dictionary is Python's built-in mapping type. 1 the boolean constants True and False were added to the language (subclassed from 1 and 0). Keys in Python dictionary are immutable and must be unique whereas values are mutable and can be modified or changed anytime. Let’s say you’re using some parsed JSON, for example from the Wikidata API. The structure is pretty predictable, but not at all times: some of the keys in the dictionary might not be available all the time. How do we get that value to. Which ends this lesson. The return value from validate will either be True, meaning all present, or a dictionary with False for all missing values/sections. Yet, they are nearly optimal (for code written in Python). A collection is similar to a basket that you can. Specifying the contained type If you want the nested dictionary to hold. Numbering continues from the new value for subsequent list items. Get a List of Keys From a Dictionary in Both Python 2 and Python 3. 0 string, which is the same as Python 2. The keys in the dictionary should be. items() is the same (just as it was in Python 2. """ options: Dict[str, Optional[Completer]] = {} for key, value in data. As we cannot iterate and remove elements from dictionary at same time. So, say, we have a dictionary. So, let's see how to delete multiple elements from dictionary. Store the sum in a variable. update(other)method to merge in the contents of another dictio-nary. I have a list which contains integers (about 80,000). Python Class Variable vs. The structure is pretty predictable, but not at all times: some of the keys in the dictionary might not be available all the time. Python: List Basics. Problem: You have a large dictionary structure (hash) with multiple nested levels, values as lists and nested dictionaries, may work, but what if the key you are trying to get either doesn't. keys() and. Python dictionary is yet another unordered collection of elements. Related Resources. When programming in Python, you may need to calculate the number of items in the dictionary. Since the configuration files can have nested sections, and those are loaded as nested dictionaries, I needed a way to print them with a indentation. Every key and every value is an object. Python Dictionary Tutorial. Okay here we are with yet another post. Python3 Tutorial - Nested Dictionaries with For. The while loop can be found in most programming languages. Python Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Python program to print all unique values in a dictionary. The key, value pairs are separated with commas. In any one Dictionary object, every key is associated with at most one value. mixing the use of numbers and strings as keys: 8. Pattern Matching In Python. There are two possible approaches, depending on how you want to treat duplications in the set of values for a key. There's also an items() which returns a list of (key, value) tuples, which is the most efficient way to examine all the key value data in the dictionary. Python type: Python type() function example to determine the type of the object. Explanation: We first import the configparser, tell it to read the file, and get a listing of the sections. In python, a dictionary can only hold a single value for a given key. + + Lookups search the underlying mappings successively until a key is found. For example, Python uses iterators in for loops to go over all elements of a list, all characters of a string, or all keys in a dictionary. Some would define a dict as a hash table. + + All of the usual dictionary methods are supported. Dictionary in Python is an unordered collection of data values, used to store data values like a map, which unlike other Data Types that hold only single value as an element, Dictionary holds key:value pair. it will have all the methods than a dictionary have. Here we'll review JSON parsing in Python so that you can get to the interesting data faster. In Python dictionaries are written with curly brackets, and they have keys and values. Arrays are useful and fundamental structures that exist in every high-level language. Certainly, the elements in the dictionary are in form of key: value pair. It depends on what kind of list you want to make. The configuration files are organized into sections, and each section can contain name-value pairs for configuration data. If the sequence ends with a comma, Python leaves the line unfinished, so the value printed next appears on the same line. I had to build out my dictionary and make sure that all worked, and good news, Great success! Thanks for the help! As a follow up, my grand scheme was to use the above method to make sure all the data in my dataframe was consistent with another dictionary I had built. A function that needs to return multiple values can just return a tuple of the values. The class can be used to simulate nested scopes and is useful in templating. If you try to assign a value to some key in a dictionary, the dictionary checks if it exists. Note that the key must be unique just like you cannot find. mdict is a subclass of the built-in dictionary in which each key maps to a list of values. The good news is that Python comes with an built-in help system. Set is a collection which is unordered and unindexed. A for loop is used for iterating over a sequence (that is either a list, a tuple, a dictionary, a set, or a string). Problem: You have a large dictionary structure (hash) with multiple nested levels, values as lists and nested dictionaries, may work, but what if the key you are trying to get either doesn’t. This article will take you through the key differences to consider when choosing on whether to work in Python 2 or Python 3 for your development projects. Print the dictionary variable. The nested_dict is a dictionary with the keys: first and second, which hold dictionary objects in their values. fromkeys(seq) return a new dictionary with keys from sequence seq (list or tuple). You might have noticed that these definitions are quite similar to the value definitions within a python dictionary. copy() return a shallow copy of d. Using a Python Dictionary Built using a da SearchCursor to Replace a Summary Statistics Output Table Another common need is to create a summary of a feature class for the unique values of a field or fields that cover multiple records. This is basically useful in cases where we are given a JSON object or we have scraped a particular page and we want to sum the value of a particular attribute in objects. It consists of a key value pairs. Chapter 3 - Lists, Tuples and Dictionaries¶ Python has several other important data types that you'll probably use every day. The tuple is same as of list in Python. values Setting a value in a nested python dictionary given a list of indices and value python update nested dictionary (4) Sorry if this question has been answered before - I've been searching for solutions but I maybe am not using the correct search terms. Dictionaries cannot have duplicate keys. In this article, you'll learn about nested dictionary in Python. Use the for loop of the Python and use only keys or values in your programming. Value interpolation using Python formatting strings is also supported, to build. But they have key value pairs. a collection (like the set in the first example) or; a scalar with useful default values such as int or str. So you don’t have to confine yourself to using constants (integers, strings), you can also use function names and lambdas as values. 7 because I haven't been able to get. The inner loop runs to completion each time the outer loop runs once. This Python online training course covers setting up for utilizing Python, creating programs, string operations, tuple operations, input and output collection and manipulation, connecting to a database and executing queries, python threading, and more!. After placing the data into a dictionary, I would like to loop through the data using for. Create a dictionary from a list with all values initialized to 0. Ipinder Singh. All that is to say you can do a lot with Python, and this course will show you just how much. In contrast, the dictionary stores objects in an unordered collection. Python is often used by professional programmers. Hi, My name is Dan and I'm a newb to python (and programming. Python Forums on Bytes. I'm not experienced with Python and I'm trying to directly query a key value from within a nested dictionary. A nested loop is a loop that occurs within another loop, structurally similar to nested if statements. This function is not for general use but may be useful for test suites within the teardown scheme. Say you want to see all the keys in the dictionary (in this case, cities). Problem: You have a large dictionary structure (hash) with multiple nested levels, values as lists and nested dictionaries, may work, but what if the key you are trying to get either doesn't. This example shows how to change a value in a dict variable using the Python® update method. All properties except for url are optional. S items() works in both Python 2 and 3. If key is not available then returns default value None. Python dictionary is also known as hash table or associative array. get() Parameters. Key value is provided in the dictionary to make it more optimized. You might have noticed that methods like insert, remove or sort that only modify the list have no return value printed - they return the default None. Python dictionary method get() returns a value for the given key. In another Python Patterns column, I will try to analyze their running speed and improve their performance, at the cost of more code. Indexes for dictionaries are called keys, and a key with its associated value is called a key-value pair. Updating dynamic nested dictionary in Python. a collection (like the set in the first example) or; a scalar with useful default values such as int or str. What is Python Nested List? A list can contain any sort object, even another list (sublist), which in turn can contain sublists themselves, and so on. So, I was pretty excited when read this post on sorting by value at Digital Sanitation Engineering, I was excited. (The SSL_MODE Portion of the below listed dictionary) I have d1{key1: val1,. Ipinder Singh. The values can be objects of any type (dictionaries can even be nested with other dictionaries) and the keys can be any object so long as it's hashable, meaning basically that it is immutable (so strings are not the only valid keys, but. You can use a method called. In my experience, Python class attributes are a topic that many people know something about, but few understand completely. Python Dictionary Rules for Keys and Values. The values in the dictionary variable can be identified by the key. , it stores the elements in the form of key-value pairs that associate the keys to values. You may need to know the meaning of certain modules, classes, functions, keywords, etc. Python training from Tekslate is an ideal way to get an exposure to various features of Python programming, advanced Python programming, Python for test automation, Python scripting, Python for Data Analysis and Big Data. For printing the keys and values, we can either iterate through the dictionary one by one and print all key-value pairs or we can print all keys or values at one go. can simplify this and just use elif in the code block for all of the fclass values: to do this would be with a dictionary:. it holds a large number of containers which are largely useful. [code]>>>; import. You can use a method called. we associate keys (name) with values (details). It is a kind of mapping, i. As shown in the code above you can run a loop to get all keys, to only get values or to get both of them. Store the sum in a variable. We talk about key value pairs and items. A dictionary contains key-value pairs. for key in dict: 1. Dictionary Methods. The get() method takes maximum of two parameters: key - key to be searched in the dictionary; value (optional) - Value to be returned if the key is not found. Each key is student1, student2, student3, etc. We will create one program that will :. PyObject* PyDict_Values (PyObject *p) ¶ Return value: New reference. You have to keep track of each nested dictionary in python. That's it! It simply says that a tree is a dict whose default values are trees. Basically I have a dictionary, let's call it scores. The dictionary is similar to lists and tuples because they act as storage units for other objects or variables you've created. This is pretty straightforward, of course, but it immediately gets a bit more interesting once you realize that you can use custom objects as trains. Python3 Tutorial - Nested Dictionaries with For. If the list is updated at any time, the changes are reflected on to the view object itself, as shown in the above program. You might have noticed that these definitions are quite similar to the value definitions within a python dictionary. The keys() and values() methods of the dictionary object return list of keys and values from the dictionary, respectively. S items() works in both Python 2 and 3. argv - Command line argument. Problem: You have a large dictionary structure (hash) with multiple nested levels, values as lists and nested dictionaries, may work, but what if the key you are trying to get either doesn’t. In this article, we show how to iterate through all keys of a dictionary in Python. Chapter 3 - Lists, Tuples and Dictionaries¶ Python has several other important data types that you’ll probably use every day. By nature, a dictionary is a one-to-one mapping, but it's not hard to make it one-to-many—in other words, to make one key map to multiple values. Dictionary comprehension consists of an expression pair (key: value) followed by for statement inside curly braces {}. Use the get method to get the list item corresponding to a given index. To delete all the entries (all key-value pairs) from dictionary we can use the clear() method. The default value is N. The inner loop runs to completion each time the outer loop runs once. According to the python documentation, "list comprehensions provide a concise way to create lists. [code]>>>; import. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: