Putty Commands Pdf

Use the mv command to: The. Both traditional command line and graphical (GUI) versions are available to suit your preference. Connect the other end to the Serial port of your computer. Initially you will be in your home directory. keyboard shortcuts putty client side clone database clone FTP command line configuration connect routers console. c:6 if i >= ARRAYSIZE This command sets a breakpoint at line 6 of file file1. What is the result? _____ At the switch prompt, issue the. Sudo, the one command to rule them all. Redhat Linux or Solaris. The "touch" command is used to create a new empty file with the default permissions. File 1: A PDF le containing the complete thesis or dissertation. net Command Prompt Domain Registration fckeditor file uploading flash google map hotels HTML Javascript Functions joomla Light Box Magento Magento Installation Moveable GIF MySQL oscommerce oscommerce newsletter grouping files paypal PDF editor Photoshop php Inbuilt Functions PHP Scripts Putty RSS Feeds. PuTTY Tray (free; open-source; based on PuTTY) PuTTY Tray, as the name suggests, is based on PuTTY. com and a few more sites. Pico displays a menu bar of commonly-used commands at the bottom of the screen. If you faced any difficulties in the process, feel free to leave a comment in the following comment section. PuTTY (/ ˈ p ʌ t i /) is a free and open-source terminal emulator, serial console and network file transfer application. It also helps me on topics which I know I'll have to work on and off again. but i was not able to. Before, I'd really prefer not doing tasks on my web servers via SSH because I did not start making things for the web using the command line. Last updated Tuesday, Jul 12, 2016. Multi-user operating systems, such as Unix and VMS, usually present a command-line interface to the user, much like the „Command Prompt‟ or „MS-DOS Prompt‟ in Windows. 1 What are SSH, Telnet and Rlogin? 1. PuTTY SSH Client. Here are few examples: ls - to list files in a directory:. In the summary of commands below, C- and then a letter means hold down the CONTROL key and press 1You can select text in the usual way, and if you are using PuTTY, selecting text copies it to a buffer. The command line is a quick, powerful, text-based interface developers use to more effectively and efficiently communicate with computers to accomplish a wider set of tasks. In Windows environments, only the PuTTY client has been tested. Getting Started with vSphere Command-Line Interfaces ESXi 5. When you SSH into a web server you are using a cryptographic network protocol. Then, use some command on the text. INSTALLATION & GUIS With platform specific installers for Git, GitHub also provides the ease of staying up-to-date with the latest releases of the command line tool while providing a graphical user interface for day-to-day. Linux Fundamentals Paul Cobbaut Publication date 2015-05-24 CEST Abstract This book is meant to be used in an instructor-led training. 1 AUTOSCR Run script from memory: autoscr [addr] - run script starting at addr - A valid autoscr header must be present The autoscr command allows "shell" scripts to run under U-Boot. After installing Apache2, the commands below can be used to stop, start and enable Apache2 service to always start up with the server boots. Command: “Ctrl-a” “c”. The shell is what you see, your environment, when you open PuTTY or Terminal. (Here I have used the ls command as an example. ls - to list files in | The UNIX and Linux Forums. Plink stands for PuTTY Link. The commands have been grouped into User Commands and Administration Commands. Now that we can connect to the BeagleBone, let’s get a SSH session running. New to the Linux command-line? Confused by all of the other advanced text editors? How-To Geek’s got your back with this tutorial to Nano, a simple text-editor that’s very newbie-friendly. cshrc file so the user simply enters startvnc to start a session and killvnc to kill a session. download putty. Linux Cat Command Usage with Examples. Enter your Web server’s IP address or hostname in the Host Name (or IP address) box, and click Open. 2 How do SSH, Telnet and Rlogin differ? Chapter 1: Introduction to PuTTY. ls –l lists contents of current directory with extra details. PuTTY SSH Client. docx), PDF File (. shutdown — shut down machine. This is a simple UNIX command interview questions where you need to create a file and change its parameter to read-only by using chmod command you can also change your umask to create read only file. On some I use Windows Shutdown command, on other domains I use PSshutdown, on a couple of devices like NAS and the like: Putty SSH and Linux PowerOff command. There are. 8 out of 10 based on 4 ratings Related Posts VeryPDF PDF to Any Converter SDK is a Royalty Free DLL Library for Developers, which can convert from PDF files to Word, Excel, PowerPoint, HTML, XML, PostScript, EPS, plain text and image, like TIFF, JPEG, TGA, PNG, GIF, BMP, and PNM (PPM, PBM, and PPM) etc. It could be due to incorrect drivers, conflicting drivers if you have. To send a literal C-a to the programs in screen, use C-a a. ls /home/user/*. To enter NetScaler’s shell mode (FreeBSD) type “shell”, to exit the shell mode type “exit”. Linux is an open-source operating system. This will create a new window for you with your default prompt. This can also be accomplished from your command line terminal on either Windows or Linux machines but the advantage of PuTTY is that it can be configured to work better for each individual system. The system prints a prompt, and you type commands which the system will obey. QuietPutty® is Class-A fire-resistant acoustical putty designed to preserve the performance of STC rated assemblies. Putty is an open source SSH purchaser used to hook up with a far flung server. The Nslookup command line command allows you to displays information that you can use to diagnose Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure. But for many use cases, the command line is. Your PDF les must have all fonts embedded, be text-searchable, and must not be encrypted. • Created a new PIM Chapter and moved the PIM-SM command and added the new. 1 This document supports the version of each product listed and supports all subsequent versions until the document is replaced. This is only a Handy Guide to PuTTY, it is not about history, development of PuTTY. Double click on the putty. ls - to list files in | The UNIX and Linux Forums. The interface is available using the vagrant command, and comes installed with Vagrant automatically. PuTTY is a client software for SSH, Telnet, rlogin and raw TCP and is free, comes with MIT license. Windows (anywhere) Æ Windows (internal/DESY) Introduction First of all you need PuTTY. Download this Cisco Switch Commands Cheat Sheet as PDF file to have it as reference with you in the field. Once PuTTY and Xming are installed and configured, you can log into our servers as per the above directions, but make sure the Xming software is running before using PuTTY to login. All command documentation outlined below describes a command and its available parameters and provides a document template or prototype for each command. Quality Control of Illumina Data at the Command Line Quick UNIX Introduction: UNIX is an operating system like OSX or Windows. System administration relies a great deal on shell scripting; common tasks are often automated using simple scripts. work mode (master or slave). By other way, Putty allows you connect work sesions with your unix box, these sesions allow you executes native commands of unix, one of them could be lp (unix printer command). VIM Editor Commands. so many LaTeX directories) so only having to write pdf saves me quite some time and keystrokes. This chapter describes the CLI syntax, conventions, and modes. Introduction Learn how to use PuTTY for Windows to log in to a Cloud Server and access the command line. PuTTY SSH Client. 0 vCenter Server 5. INSTALLATION & GUIS With platform specific installers for Git, GitHub also provides the ease of staying up-to-date with the latest releases of the command line tool while providing a graphical user interface for day-to-day. Scopy files to selected server and change. [1] Only if is 1 (on) and is 23, Tera Term starts spontaneously sending telnet commands to the host for the option negotiation when the TCP/IP connection is established. exe is a secure shell (ssh) authentication agent for the PuTTY, PSCP, and Plink programs. PuTTY has the ability to change the terminal's size and position in response to commands from the server. These options allow you to bypass the configuration window and launch straight into a session. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. Otherwise, follow the instructions for the program you are using to access your router’s command line interface to the serial port. c:6 if i >= ARRAYSIZE This command sets a breakpoint at line 6 of file file1. ip COMMAND CHEAT SHEET for Red Hat Enterprise Linux IP QUERIES SUBCOMMAND DESCRIPTIONS AND TASKS addr Display IP Addresses and property information (abbreviation of address) ip addr Show information for all addresses ip addr show dev em1 Display information only for device em1 link Manage and display the state of all network interfaces ip link. PuTTY is open source software that is available with source code and is developed and supported by a group of volunteers. Customize AT Firmware 1. UNIX C Language Commands. (Here I have used the ls command as an example. If you are using PuTTY, follow the bulleted steps below. Once PuTTY and Xming are installed and configured, you can log into our servers as per the above directions, but make sure the Xming software is running before using PuTTY to login. It will then monitor the terminal for any commands. I am not focused on too many memory, process, kernel, etc. SS64 bash discussion forum. This can be useful in an internal penetration test when you already have access to a sysadmin’s machine who has a Putty session open to a Linux server. The find command is one of the most versatile commands in UNIX and Linux and I used it a lot in my day to day work. We can find their. txt Using editor such as emacs, vi Creating and editing a file Viewing the content of a File cat View the content of the file cat commands. When reporting on cellular WANs, also includes mode (3G, 4G) and signal strength. From Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook. This is only a Handy Guide to PuTTY, it is not about history, development of PuTTY. CLI Command Description set cli mode -color ON Adds color. The command is displayed on the status line as you type. The common m commands are: m_dump m_cat m_wc m_rm m_env m_cp m_mv. !e command line interface is useful for remote access over radio modems and cell data links. PuTTY is an SSH and telnet client, developed originally by Simon Tatham for the Windows platform. keyboard shortcuts putty client side clone database clone FTP command line configuration connect routers console. Test commands This chapter describes commands required to place the modem in particular modes of operation, test host connectivity, and configure the transmitters and receivers for test measurements. Repeat last edit command u Undo last edit. com Command Description pwd prints working directory (prints to screen, ie displays the full path, or your location on the filesystem) ls lists contents of current directory ls -l lists contents of current directory with extra details. Plink is a companion command-line utility for PuTTY. The command set of HC-03 and HC-05 are more flexible than HC-04 and HC-06’s. The protocol command structure is made up of three parts: Command Integration ID Command-specific fields 1. pdf" and it is stored in the Documents directory, type "evince Documents/wages. PuTTY and WinScp. You can choose to use putty tool as well but now it's easiest and more comfortable to use the tools which are offered by default. It also helps me on topics which I know I'll have to work on and off again. conf and runs the chmod o+r command to modify file permissions of the find results. This cheat sheet features the most important and commonly used Git commands for easy reference. Setting up Xming and Putty on your Windows laptop Xming is a program that runs an X­Windows server to run on Windows OS computers. 16 time-saving Hotkeys for Putty. But wait, you say, PuTTY is a graphical SSH client for windows. Under Category, choose Session. Windows: Hyperterminal, Tera Term, Putty MacOS: Terminal, XTerm, Putty. Overview of Junos OS CLI Operational Mode Commands. End with CNTL/Z. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. exe -load COM command. In addition to the PuTTY client (putty. pdf" and it is stored in the Documents directory, type "evince Documents/wages. 1 What are SSH, Telnet and Rlogin? If you already know what SSH, Telnet and Rlogin are, you can safely skip on to the next section. Display list of most recently executed commands kill [option] IDs Send a signal to terminate one or more processIDs. These use remote session on a compute… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. But for many use cases, the command line is. most pdf viewers, clicking on a cross-reference in one manual that refers to a section in another UserGuide/putty. After installing Apache2, the commands below can be used to stop, start and enable Apache2 service to always start up with the server boots. Besides the putty command, the software is also distributed with the pscp SCP client, psftp SFTP client, puttytel Telnet-only client, plink (PuTTY Link) connection. Currently this is 0. PuTTY is a free and open source terminal emulator application which can act as a client for the SSH under MS-Windows operating system. 0) Created Date:. Galil Motion Control Command Reference Two Letter Only The command accepts no arguments BN Burn (BN) controller parameters to flash memory Operator or Comparator Operators take two arguments and produce a result. ppk file you created in the previous steps, select it and click Open. puTTY Tutorial puTTY is a terminal program for Windows that can communicate over a variety of protocols — the most interesting being SSH. Configuration and commands explained in this tutorial are essential commands to manage a Cisco switch effectively. commands from an SSH session or from the system console. Note to Unix users: this manual currently primarily documents the Windows versions of the PuTTY utilities. UNIX computers can only be accessed with secure shell (ssh) software such as Putty or NiftyTelnet. Introduction to the Command Line (Second Edition): The Fat Free Guide to Unix and Linux Commands; SSH Mastery: OpenSSH, PuTTY, Tunnels and Keys; 3. Connect the other end to the Serial port of your computer. Resources linked from this page may no longer be available or reliable. exe for windows. For Functions you need steps 1-3: Step 1: At the beginning of your program you need to declare any functions:. c, etc) you need to use an editor in the UNIX. I googled it up but not a Some say with putty, I have putty installed in my windows machine. CLI SSH Command Reference Command Overview CLI Command Description Status commands get wan [n] Retrieves each WAN’s connection status (Connected, Disconnected, etc. Learn how to configure and manage a Cisco Switch step by step with this basic switch commands and configuration guide. 15 most used SSH commands - Raspberry Pi SSH commands apt-get update apt-get update. so many LaTeX directories) so only having to write pdf saves me quite some time and keystrokes. The system prints a prompt, and you type commands which the system will obey. For self-study, the intent is to read this book next to a working Linux computer so you can immediately do every subject, practicing each command. cc -o run [file]. My server is in linux. Enter your Web server's IP address or hostname in the Host Name (or IP address) box, and click Open. The command prompt will be similar to the Mac and Linux Distros. PuTTY is a client software for SSH, Telnet, rlogin and raw TCP and is free, comes with MIT license. Multi-user operating systems, such as Unix and VMS, usually present a command-line interface to the user, much like the „Command Prompt‟ or „MS-DOS Prompt‟ in Windows. Some command documentation also includes the relevant mongo shell helpers. It supports several network protocols, including SCP, SSH, Telnet, rlogin, and raw socket connection. Connect Linux VM via Putty. If you want to know where you are in the program's execution (and how, to some extent, you got there), you can view the contents of the stack using the backtrace command as follows: (gdb) bt #0 ComputeFactorial (number=0) at broken. The File System (FS) shell includes various shell-like commands that directly interact with the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) as well as other file systems that Hadoop supports, such as Local FS, HFTP FS, S3 FS, and others. Enter the hostname or IP address in the Host Name textbox; Save the session. It means that you can perform a certain command or set of commands on your computer and have another computer execute the actions. While it has cross-platform ports, it’s used most frequently on Windows systems, because they otherwise lack a built-in terminal emulator that interoperates well with Unix-style TTY systems. Emacs Cheat Sheet. The find command in UNIX is a command line utility for walking a file hierarchy. In addition to the PuTTY client (putty. Login to Linux using SSH and Putty by Silvino C. Input a user-friendly name into Display name field. 12 -t and -T: control pseudo-terminal allocation. Note to Unix users: this manual currently primarily documents the Windows versions of the. When you SSH into a web server you are using a cryptographic network protocol. One page Linux Manual - Great one page reference to the most popular Linux commands. 5 active connections you run 5 PuTTY instances and you have 5 PuTTY windows on the desktop. The cat command (short for “concatenate “) is one of the most frequently used command in Linux/Unix, Apple Mac OS X operating systems. They are not putty commands. The PuTTY application was first written to be used on computers running the Windows Operating System (OS) and can access centrally based web servers that are running the Linux or Unix OS. The CLI gives you access to the switch’s full set of commands while providing the same password protection that is used in the web browser interface and the menu interface. puTTY Tutorial puTTY is a terminal program for Windows that can communicate over a variety of protocols — the most interesting being SSH. Choose Properties. Search Search. And for them, here is your Kali Linux commands cheat sheet, take a copy of the Kali commands pdf along with this article for your reference in future. PuTTY is a free (MIT-licensed) Windows Telnet and SSH client. If you can't find what you're looking for please write to [email protected] exe is a command-line secure file copy (SCP) client. If you leave port number blank, PuTTY will use the default port for the selected protocol. Putty only displays command prompt of a remote Linux computer in Windows. Hi Guys, I am writing a batch file which runs a command prompt to delete the contents of a folder - the command line needs a confirmation Y or N after the line is run - h [SOLVED] Auto Answer Y or N in Command line - Windows Forum - Spiceworks. The render size of some fonts on Windows is different from the render size on a Linux desktop. SS64 bash discussion forum. for example 'grep' filters content based on certain strings. Getting Started with vSphere Command-Line Interfaces ESXi 5. Download and install putty on the same machine. This manual documents PuTTY, and its companion utilities PSCP, PSFTP, Plink, Pageant and PuTTYgen. The "-R" flag tells the command to recurse through subdirectories. docx), PDF File (. txt) or read online for free. The first article described using the Arduino IDE to program the ESP8266, and contains some important background. Using the Command Line Interface (CLI) Overview Overview The CLI is a text-based command interf ace for configuring and monitoring the switch. • Redirecting output: Any command in has a default device for output and a default device for input. 2 Commands Reference. Command Description. PuTTy Windows Client (to connect to Amazon EC2 instance) 3. On a very high-level: Use PuTTY for interactive SSH session from your Windows to Linux Servers; Use Plink for non-interactive SSH session to execute remote linux commands for automation purpose from your Windows; In this tutorial, we’ll discuss the following:. Then I can open PuTTY from the Commands menu if I need it. If this is meant to work, then perhaps this should be a bug report. Hit the up arrow to scroll back through previous commands – save yourself some typing! Always make a backup copy of the working version of a file before editing it. Plink is a companion command-line utility for PuTTY. If you have installed PuTTY on a network drive, you might want to check that the help file works properly. This manual documents PuTTY, and its companion utilities PSCP, PSFTP, Plink, Pageant and PuTTYgen. Some commands have an immediate effect on the reader. Save the download to your C:\WINDOWS folder. In this A to Z list of Linux commands, we have tried to include as many commands as possible which can be run using bash. PuTTY is a free SSH, Telnet and Rlogin client for Windows systems. AT commands can be issued only when the modem is in command mode or online command mode. Customize AT Firmware 1. Command Line Interface Guide. In this article, we are going to. Each line represents one process, with a process being loosely defined as a running instance of a program. Basic cisco commands book. Here are some Bash commands that are fun, and some of them are useful as well. 40 Star Micronics Co. Please follow the below given steps. commands which the system will obey. If you have installed PuTTY on a network drive, you might want to check that the help file works properly. To install PuTTY, open logon to Ubuntu and open the command line terminal by pressing Ctrl — Alt — T keys on your keyboard. , from a command prompt window, or a Windows shortcut). Use command “ssh -V” to check the SSH version installed. This tutorial explains basic switch configuration commands in detail with examples. 1 What are SSH, Telnet and Rlogin? 1. 0' or `scc' for the latest version of standard C or `pcc' for portable C. For example when you see a file with an extension of gif, jpg, bmp, or png you think of an image file, and when you see a file with an extension of zip, you assume the file has been compressed using a zip compression utility. Interactive commands (after you receive a reverse connection): !status See if the Putty window is connected to user input !discon Disconnect the main Putty window so it won't display anything This is useful to send commands without the user to notice !recon Reconnect the Putty window to its normal operation mode CMD Linux shell commands !exit. Use this command to display or set printer options and defaults. In any cases, Tera Term can respond to telnet commands sent by the host. This manual documents PuTTY, and its companion utilities PSCP, PSFTP, Plink, Pageant and PuTTYgen. The command prompt will be similar to the Mac and Linux Distros. In this A to Z list of Linux commands, we have tried to include as many commands as possible which can be run using bash. PuTTY is a free and open source terminal emulator application which can act as a client for the SSH under MS-Windows operating system. Putty only displays command prompt of a remote Linux computer in Windows. For example, all commands that display information about the system, configuration, or hardware are grouped under the show command, and all commands that allow you to configure the switch are grouped under the configure terminal command. The commands have been grouped into User Commands and Administration Commands. 8 out of 10 based on 4 ratings Related Posts VeryPDF PDF to Any Converter SDK is a Royalty Free DLL Library for Developers, which can convert from PDF files to Word, Excel, PowerPoint, HTML, XML, PostScript, EPS, plain text and image, like TIFF, JPEG, TGA, PNG, GIF, BMP, and PNM (PPM, PBM, and PPM) etc. Infact it uses an ssh connection in the background to perform the file transfer. PuTTY is an SSH and telnet client, developed originally by Simon Tatham for the Windows platform. exe -load COM command. Putty Connection Manager can be used as tabbed version of Putty. The render size of some fonts on Windows is different from the render size on a Linux desktop. In this article, we are going to. Then, use some command on the text. The most important CLI commands are included that will be helpful for most configurations. The command line interpreter can be downloaded for free for Windows operating system and is developed by JP software. Putty only displays command prompt of a remote Linux computer in Windows. Especially when I am learning something new. df — show disk usage. PuTTY (/ ˈ p ʌ t i /) is a free and open-source terminal emulator, serial console and network file transfer application. I was looking for a way to run Putty with a single command besides /m commands. These are command-line programs that can often be used together by using pipelines or redirects (see the Command Basics Reference Guide). 0' or `scc' for the latest version of standard C or `pcc' for portable C. Grep is the frequently used command in Unix (or Linux). KiTTY is a fork of PuTTY (started from version 0. Command Sub-command Input Output/Result Role Boot loader Description NMII+ # N/A N/A EX Yes NOOP for running scripts from the console 9. pdf) will trigger the action in the server you are connected to, so don't expect to see the file through your putty session. You can reconfigure these keys to your liking using a. All command documentation outlined below describes a command and its available parameters and provides a document template or prototype for each command. For example, when you ask for a file list (“ls”), the output is the screen, while the command takes its input from the current directory (disk). It is much easier doing this task over the SimpliVity CLI. C LIs (command-line interface) have existed since ages. The command name, in this case, is ls and it accepts various parameters. The Put command will paste in the last portion of text that was deleted since deleted text is stored in a buffer. This was the home page for Ghostscript, an interpreter for the PostScript language and for PDF, and related software and documentation. If you have installed PuTTY on a network drive, you might want to check that the help file works properly. exe" download is good for basic SSH. Stepii) is not working and I have tried 3 different ways - a) X command. She works for Mindmajix e-learning website and is passionate about writing blogs and articles on new technologies such as Artificial intelligence, cryptography, Data science and innovations in software and, so, took up a profession as a Content contributor at Mindmajix. You can add 26 shortcuts (CTRL+SHIFT+A to Z) for each putty session. Helpful Unix Terminal Commands Conventions Used Boldface is what you type at the command line. If you want PuTTY to open in the same directory as WinSCP, you need to replace its session startup command using -m argument. You can type "nano " or "vi " in the command prompt to edit a file. Enter the vty password configured in Step 3. In the new PuTTY window that opens, under "Host Name (or IP address)" enter your A command prompt will open up asking. In linux, you can use the format ssh –p15426 IP_address. The modem is in command mode whenever it. A directory is a special le on the storage device that can contain other les. 8 out of 10 based on 4 ratings Related Posts VeryPDF PDF to Any Converter SDK is a Royalty Free DLL Library for Developers, which can convert from PDF files to Word, Excel, PowerPoint, HTML, XML, PostScript, EPS, plain text and image, like TIFF, JPEG, TGA, PNG, GIF, BMP, and PNM (PPM, PBM, and PPM) etc. MTPuTTY (Multi-Tabbed PuTTY) PuTTY is the most popular SSH client for Windows. If you're not familiar with AIX, learning to navigate the VIOS is a great stepping stone to understanding AIX better. PuTTY is a free terminal editor and network file transfer application. exe), the following PuTTY-related programs are installed: pageant. Putty is an emulator installed in your wintel client, any print request from Putty will be done against a printer device under wintel control (lpt1, usb, lan). • a browser-based. The computer must have a terminal emulation application that supports these protocols. A good alternative terminal emulator software to HyperTerminal is PuTTY. - Flash a disk identification LED disk expand - Expand DD510 and DD530 storage capacity disk fail. Some, using Plink. Converting PuTTY PSFTP or OpenSSH SFTP script to WinSCP script This guide explains primarily how to convert existing SFTP file transfer script using PuTTY SFTP client ( psftp. puTTY Tutorial puTTY is a terminal program for Windows that can communicate over a variety of protocols — the most interesting being SSH. (If you know a command and doesn't know how to use it, type man name_of_command. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud CLI Reference Amazon's trademarks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service that is not Amazon's, in any manner. whoami — who you are logged in as. Copying Files between Linux and Windows Computers with SSH To transfer files from Linux to Windows with using SSH, choose one of the following options: PuTTY. Putty software allows you to remote login to computers systems. the text, you must either hold down the CONTROL key and press the command key, or strike the ESC (escape) key first and then press the command key. In most cases, these shell commands open some system folder or Control panel applet. Introduction Learn how to use PuTTY for Windows to log in to a Cloud Server and access the command line. e, sftp files to selected unix server and run command to change owner, took off ctrm for text file. pwd prints working directory (prints to screen, ie displays the full path, or your location on the filesystem) ls lists contents of current directory. Repeat last edit command u Undo last edit. You will be prompted to enter the key's passphrase again in order to load it in the application. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: