Need Struct Type But Got String

(2 replies) In a Python extension module, I have a struct that I need to pass to Python, then back into the extension module later for use. Programmers do not play any role here. Another form of overloading is that due to type. Further Reading. The C/C++ struct and union types, and the C++ class type, can be used to group data of different types for use as a single variable, which in turn can be either a scalar or an array. Using the ms_struct attribute instead of compiling with -mms-bitfields reproduces the packing issue, while using the gcc_struct attribute prevents the issue from showing up even under -mms-bitfields. I won't be inherited, I don't need destructors, etc. Not sure of syntax of the looping to reference the outdata data? I played with cfloop collection ="mydata" and cfscript for-in loops, but I keep getting complex data errors. Request) { w. One alternative is to simply avoid immutable “set once at init” style properties, and instead use var for any properties you might need to change. /pattern_offset. I got my feet in to go but I'm stuck. The value of a struct is the "union" of all the values of the instance fields of the struct. That raises some questions. This document is available in two formats, both of which should contain the same information: HTML; PDF; Code examples can be downloaded from links in the text, or can be found in the examples directory. The code was passing a format string and integer to apr_pstrcat. ppl of the group, I'm here to ask if there is a way to validate a field to be DIFFERENT from a value from a hidden field on a form or a sample string. If you are coming from an object-oriented background, you can think of a struct to be a light class that supports composition but not inheritance. One alternative is to simply avoid immutable “set once at init” style properties, and instead use var for any properties you might need to change. What can I do with this? Calling win32 native functions come from user32. The above command will create a binary for Linux and the appropriate Raspberry Pi architecture. The type of x must be a mutable struct, o…. For this task we want to create a class named Business. Q&A for Work. Or use different library. It doesn't say in instructions what type it is. Next thing to check is the addresses of system() and exit(). ELF32 Relocations that don't need an addend field. They are extracted from open source Python projects. My current setup is to have a struct for the node that contains a vector for another. This is because the reference type field will need the heap allocation anyway. Similar to yours. the classic Animal class example in C++ and Rust. I'm using the std::getline() function. And then you can write exactly the function that I described and give it a type like int or string list to int. C# / C Sharp Forums on Bytes. The data type string format equals to :class:`DataType. Why would you want/need to use a struct here? If you're using Cocoa + Objective-C you will probably very rarely use a struct when you can make a class instead. We use an anonymous struct with a Name field of type string to go for the simplest "happy" path. I have what should be a relatively simple program (fadec. It's a tricky question because grouping in SSRS is handled outside of functions, so the equivalent to condfld is explained here. Data Engineers Will Hate You - One Weird Trick to Fix Your Pyspark Schemas May 22 nd , 2016 9:39 pm I will share with you a snippet that took out a lot of misery from my dealing with pyspark dataframes. Imports System. type Balancer interface { Endpoint() (endpoint. Devirtualization in C++, part 7 (Enforcing One Definition Rule) This time I am going to write about a feature that I implemented as a side effect of the devirtualization machinery : the verification of One Definition Rule on types. You've got the right idea. The new feature is the use of a Type object to specify the type of the struct being read in. I'm trying to do it using a CObject through the following, but PyCObject_AsVoidPtr() returns a void*, not a struct. Analysis and implementation of the Set data structure in Go. Reading a struct, field by field. The easy way would be to have url as a char*. Re: Basic Question - Array in Struct Originally Posted by kenrus I know hungarian notation is out of style with a lot of people (Microsoft being one), but that doesn't negate it's benefits and it has proven to be very useful over the years. About the order, if they have the same size, there is no problem with ordering them. Many times the separator will be something like a comma, but not always. finally, my C is a bit rusty (thought I tend to write Cish c++ at times) in C specifically you MAY need to typdef structs to make them a type, otherwise you just get 1 instance of the thing. The next section helps with that by showing you how to create your own custom struct type. "int *" or struct foo *, then it allocates the memory for one int or struct foo. Once you got familiar with the introduction to the coroutines, then I think it's high time to actually implement your first co-routine object. Because this is code we have written, we have insider knowledge of those structs, and we can teach and program GDB via the Python API how to print this value, and all values that have the same type, to present better output. Go kit provides a couple of basic load balancers, and it’s easy to write your own if you want more advanced heuristics. A string is actually a synonym for a char *. But note that you have to ask for Debug to be implemented - Rust is not going to make all structs pay the price of the extra code by default. Here are relevant sections of what I've coded so far:. All primitive data type except string and object are example of value types. I want to read information from a text file into an array of structs of type AddWithdrawal. stackexchange. If you are coming from an object-oriented background, you can think of a struct to be a light class that supports composition but not inheritance. I have these functions:. A struct type is nothing but a schema containing the blueprint of a data a structure will hold. Imports System. Why does rust use struct keyword when in fact structs in rust act as class more than structs in C languages? It could have been named class or protocol like in swift or something unique. I don't know the reason, i just always got told to do that, lol. Then I need to build some methods that takes the mutable struct type as argument, e. Since the pointer is of a variable of type structure named 'student', we have written 'struct student' before the name of the pointer in the argument of the function. Working with Arrays in Standard SQL In BigQuery, an array is an ordered list consisting of zero or more values of the same data type. They will not get "converted" to an actual string, but Send will send it's Hex address instead. For the moment, you are better off defining your own equality operator. n] OF CHAR) in your STRUCT and copy the string to it. C# / C Sharp Forums on Bytes. If you look at the documentation for any of these. CLion is available on our site. I don’t need time I need only date in same format. Got the type String, but cannot put a variable under "tag". string does not have such a method, so it doesn't satisfy the interface; etc. Type-name aliases can help when defined within a single file but don’t work across a project or assemblies. I want to make a function that takes any struct as an argument, fill it and then return it or add it (to another struct) as the same type (if I return it as an interface I get that it doesn't support indexing). The Struct type fully specifies the content of a Hash. Here are relevant sections of what I've coded so far:. class MyPrintable: CustomStringConvertible {// CustomStringConvertible gives us the ability to add something similar to toString() from java. simpleString`, except that top level struct type can omit the ``struct<>`` and atomic types use ``typeName ()`` as their format, e. This means that a boxed null string can have different representations depending how you got there. We also need to remember to add the prototype, bool compare_strings(string a, string b); to the top. In the function, we accessed the members of the pointer using -> sign as discussed before. Analysis and implementation of the Set data structure in Go. I've got an array of this type of struct which holds a hundred or so questions. VoteSet helps collect signatures from validators at each height+round for a predefined vote type. Basically I'm talking. (I'd also suggest that you don't have public fields, by the way. The struct must contain two different string values, and a vector. When I add this variable to the struct, all the fields change to cells (I think), and I have to type mystruct (1). Basketball, structs, and the string class; I've got quite some experience with C and C++ and I'm sure I can help you out with your project. The first is the separator between elements. Microsoft library for strings has got the method to convert from string to char*, so if you would use it instead, you could convert your type by calling this method. I have never got any think through yet, during my attempts with sending 2 different structs. simpler jsons and structs were fine, but this one is a true road block. Not a ptr to the beginning of the string which can be marshalled with the [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType. This rule is useful when you realize too late that you need to attach some extra data to each element of your list. Request) { w. Introduction. NET Framework types, you'll see them declared as struct types. You can declare a value type by using the reserved keyword, for example, Decimal. All fields got used. Once you got familiar with the introduction to the coroutines, then I think it's high time to actually implement your first co-routine object. However, this “struct” is a memory copy of the struct. Need Pointers on this, went through my book again trying to solve this question and running into brick walls define the struct studentType to implement the basic properties of a student. A type’s size is the amount of computer memory required to store one value of this type. C++/CX represents a Windows Runtime string as a reference type; while C++/WinRT projects a string as a value type. I won’t be inherited, I don’t need destructors, etc. But wait - Go’s standard encoding/gob package provides a way of serializing and deserializing Go data types without the need for adding string tags to structs, dealing with JSON/Go incompatibilities, or waiting for json. This should eliminate the need for explicitly coding MCacheMaxStreamingBuffer in most configurations. First, you must tell the compiler how the actual struct looks like - ie, no initialization. The ctype is usually some constant string describing the C type. You can iterate over those values, add new values, remove values and clear the set, get the set size, and check if the set contains an item. When I add this variable to the struct, all the fields change to cells (I think), and I have to type mystruct (1). Apr 7 '12 # 2. This post explores the how and why of writing a table driven tes. You can avoid mixing different concerns in the same place — keeping each piece of functionality pu. Tags: Database. Re: winpcap search pkt_data for string D_Zirt. As a Java static method is the equivalent of associated function, let. n] OF CHAR) in your STRUCT and copy the string to it. Once you got familiar with the introduction to the coroutines, then I think it's high time to actually implement your first co-routine object. However, all is not lost. Thats not practical because every sender has other sensors/data. I need to loop through each subscribers name and email and insert their name and email into the subscribers table in the database. This is good because it means that the union is representing just one of the two values, not both, and using only enough memory to store one of them, not both. Boxing and unboxing a string. isco Old Dance Party School Disco Pants Halloween Women Costume Groovy Retro. Need help with a program to read a 4-bit binary number as a String and convert it to a decimal?! I'm supposed to enter a 4-bit binary number, and have that binary value by outputted as a decimal value. For this task we want to create a class named Business. Keyboard Help Keyboard Help shows functions for various key presses on the keyboard. simpleString`, except that top level struct type can omit the ``struct<>`` and atomic types use ``typeName()`` as their format, e. Many of these developers had never used Objective-C before, and that was the first challenge Apple. This is a print version of some chapters from the book C++ Programming. We use an anonymous struct with a Name field of type string to go for the simplest "happy" path. See? It has already skipped the first three matches. Again, you could still use this general approach if your handlers and database logic are spread across multiple packages. The pointer is non-nil, it points to a string value (you can't see here, but the pointed-to string contains "yes"). My current code was something along the lines of this, but I wasn’t sure how to get the true object type afterwards. Attached patch does the following: It allows tokens of type list. The main difference between class and Struct. The variable * name *grabs the name of the folder. I'll take a root though the code see if i can spot anything. use ``byte`` instead of ``tinyint`` for :class:`ByteType`. If you pass a value type to a method, the default (without an out or ref keyword) is to pass "by value"; a shallow copy of the instance is created for use by the method, and then destroyed when the method is done leaving the initial instance intact. It's free to sign up and bid on jobs. This is a print version of some chapters from the book C++ Programming. Your choice of data type determines which operations are possible and how you must do those operations. For example, one reasonable choice of the data type for p->str is a char array preallocated, uninitialized with enough space for at least one character longer than the longest string you might store there. I have a string which contains 'C' or 'F', which I update when the user changes the setting, and I have made this string into a DP so I can bind various labels to it, so they are automatically updated. Every structure is a value type, even if it contains reference type members. Keyboard Help Keyboard Help shows functions for various key presses on the keyboard. The next step is to read all segment commands and print their names. 5 release when using the --parser future option. public string title;} Why is this a struct? That seems like a bad idea to me. It's got CFML in it. Unfortunately there is no way to use this to return an object of the specified type, so we need to use a cast when calling the function, as in:. Can't extract value from R#204. The problem here is the struct needs to look exactly the same on the other side. Those are 100% compatible with the originals, they are there because I didn't wanted to have a CMake. The Struct type fully specifies the content of a Hash. Also for each struct element I need to write a separate sorting function. We need to string more passes. Whatever samples that we got from the documentation and git is talking about exploding a String by splitting but here we have an Array strucutre. I think your base assumption is wrong. Let's say you have this structure: [code]typedef struct { float x, y, z; } Point; [/code]Now in C++ you can add f. Considering I said that it was a value type at the beginning though, that last point should come as no surprise. However there are other obvious benefits to C structs (raw address) and reference structs (opaque index), which may make debugging somewhat harder. You've got the right idea. 0" Here is the code I altered. Class – Reference type. In the function, we accessed the members of the pointer using -> sign as discussed before. 8 I'm trying to sort an array of strings with qsort, using strcmp as the comparison function, but it's not working. Message)) } Here’s an app that stores a message. About the order, if they have the same size, there is no problem with ordering them. In C, we have 2 types of type conversion. (This is why printf has no way to print an array: It would need you to tell it the type of what's in the array and how many elements there are, and both the format string and the list of arguments would quickly get confusing. The bottom line is that sorting an array of struct by struct element is very common and should be easier. CreateInstance(typeof(NotEmptyString));. I'm having a few issues with using a string or a struct as a type definition in C++. One alternative is to simply avoid immutable “set once at init” style properties, and instead use var for any properties you might need to change. Check out this documentation. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. we need to use the description property. Often in previous chapters we have made dedicated types for this to spy on function/method invocations but in this case we can just pass in an anonymous function for fn that closes over got; We use an anonymous struct with a Name field of type string to go for the simplest "happy" path. A struct may not declare a default constructor (a constructor without parameters) or a destructor. Hi Guys, I am looking to make a vector of a struct, however my struct will be within a class, I am fairly new to C++ and I dont know how to access a nested struct or class and I only came accross Vectors as a potential solution to my memory needs the the other day. Andrew Gerrand 6 February 2013 Introduction. A forward reference is only allowable when the compiler is asked to permit a pointer to a class object. I'm decent with C, but I'm having trouble translating to OOP paradigm. People should be able to write Go programs and expect that they will. 3 was ratified earlier this year, I was recollecting how we got started with it here at Cloudflare. From trac at roundcube. */ Info uint32 /* Relocation type and symbol index. The `get_json_object` UDF allows you to pull out specific fields from a JSON string, but requires you to specify with XPATH, which can become hairy, and the output is always a string. SYNOPSIS PowerShell implementation of MS16-032. @Robin2 yes I saw how you did it with letters. The actual return type of this function is ValueTuple. Make(T) end There’s no soundness issue, because the functor mints a fresh type each time it’s called on a different input module, ensuring that different comparison functions have distinct type witnesses. There is general agreement that language-based variants and pattern matching would make C++ programmers more productive. VoteSet helps collect signatures from validators at each height+round for a predefined vote type. Q==n(y {@E1 ADD16rr set_gdbarch_frame_red_zone_size (D9d$X Previewgammablue: -p:pid [email protected] string: get_json_object(string json_string, string path) It extracts json object from a json string based on json path specified, and returns json string of the extracted json object. Only clone() (or call to_owned()) when Rust complains “cannot move value …”. The second category of Apache Hive primitive data type is Date/Time data types. In all modes, Kaitai Struct follows the same ownership model: If something is created during the parsing process, it belongs to the enclosing object which represents the user type. Serialization Public Class xmlstuff Public Shared Function ToXML(ByVal host As Stats) Dim serializer As XmlSerializer = New XmlSerializer(GetType(Stats)) Dim writer As New StringWriter() serializer. All fields got used. String Data Type. For this reason, value types such as Char and Integer are implemented by. Can't extract value from R#204. However, a design that has the elegance of a functional language, but with the performance and utility of a systems language is not forthcoming. T (the generic parameter on our base class). dat file that has a list of strings. You don't need all of it. So we’ve got our code, now we need to get it on the Raspberry Pi Zero W. We will also need a function that transforms a python dict into a rRw object with the correct schema. If the function needs an owned string, but wants to accept any type of string, use an Into bound. @Robin2 yes I saw how you did it with letters. I used struct MusicAlbym as class seems to me to be designed for more sophisticated issues. The important thing to remember is that each type corresponds to a member in the value union. The next section helps with that by showing you how to create your own custom struct type. Nothing fancy needed here. Omit fields when parsing JSON. type Person struct { Name string Age int Height float32 } But that said, the empty interface is useful in situations where you need to accept and work with unpredictable or user-defined types. What happens if you call a function and you don't do anything with the result (i. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. If you look at the documentation for any of these. 1) The custom class:. string } type Human struct { } func. Data Engineers Will Hate You - One Weird Trick to Fix Your Pyspark Schemas May 22 nd , 2016 9:39 pm I will share with you a snippet that took out a lot of misery from my dealing with pyspark dataframes. string does not have such a method, so it doesn't satisfy the interface; etc. But in theses class I got few function (between 1 and 20) and few class (~8). I've rewritten this script, removing unnecessary functions and variable declarations, also cleaned it up quite a lot, optimised the code and renamed some poorly named functions. Okay don't think I made all the changes I needed to, but here is what I thought you were saying. I'd like to convert the numeric portion to a Double to use in an MLLIB LabeledPoint, and have managed to split the price string into an array of string. type StringHeader struct { Data uintptr // string value Len int // string size } The string’s characters (pointed by the Data field) are stored in data sections of the executables, as a series of UTF-8 encoded characters without null-terminators. Why would you want/need to use a struct here? If you're using Cocoa + Objective-C you will probably very rarely use a struct when you can make a class instead. You can define new types as structs or interfaces (Chapter 7). I tried to change your simple tx code so it can send a struct data type and got this. I would move the check to the getter of Value. Hello I need to return about 4 pieces of data, two of type string and two of type integer. Search for jobs related to Convert struct or hire on the world's largest freelancing marketplace with 15m+ jobs. In my understanding, the very idea of the interface is to be able to define different structures with certain methods, required by the interface, and then be able to supply these structures in any place where this interface can be used. Structures in C are in a way the precursor to classes in C++. You can't call the default constructor for struct records, but that's no big deal if you're writing idiomatic F#. But are struggling a bit related to sending 2 different structs from one Ardu to another. It would be helpful to have a new field to hold names of > shrinkers. Let's write a malloc and see how it works with existing programs!. Comparing Golang with Java If the variable type is a struct then it is known already at compile time. This means that I can use Mode as a type to mean “any mod at all”, or Mode::ByRef for the times when I know something is one of the ByRef modes, or even Mode::ByRef::Mutable. For example: char c[] = "c string"; When the compiler encounters a sequence of characters enclosed in the double quotation marks, it appends a null character \0 at the end by default. Since C is a fairly low-level programming language, the size of types can be specific to the hardware and compiler used – that is, how the language is made to work on one type of machine can be different from how it is made to work on another. This precompiled assembly will be included directly into your project, providing the serialization models that protobuf-net uses. (2 replies) In a Python extension module, I have a struct that I need to pass to Python, then back into the extension module later for use. I'm having a few issues with using a string or a struct as a type definition in C++. Hello, Is it possible to sort an array with a struct in it? example: I have a struct: public struct mp3file { public int tracknr; public int length. Note that the first two parameters of the format string need to be %s, not %c because %c only allows entry of a single character while %s allows entry of an entire word. Note Stack is an operation entity (LIFO) i. Another form of overloading is that due to type. Structures involving character strings require some care. Employees Array> We want to flatten above structure using explode API of data frames. string or array, returning a read-only view of the data in the accessor is recommended to avoid copying. Calling a stored procedure from CFScript, and how I really don't think our code needs to scream "cf" "cf" "cf" at us the whole time. Since the pointer is of a variable of type structure named 'student', we have written 'struct student' before the name of the pointer in the argument of the function. It can store any type and any size of data. Passing a CFC into an argument that is typed as a struct will not, to my knowledge, convert your CFC to a struct. Deleting struct from array of structs problem!: Ahhhhh, thanks for clearing that up! Also, my program keeps crashing when the user opts to add the input to the record. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. You could also use an enum for sex thus: Code: struct member { enum gender{ male, female }; // etc. They only confirm that the incoming value satisfies that data type. simpleString`, except that top level struct type can omit the ``struct<>`` and atomic types use ``typeName ()`` as their format, e. to_string() all work as expected. Write a C++ program that implements a linked list as an abstract data type. The next section helps with that by showing you how to create your own custom struct type. The code was passing a format string and integer to apr_pstrcat. Anyways got the code to return the string I wanted but how am I supposed to go with the size of the string, say for E. That means that this app is going to function as an http. Filling in vector of structs If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. use char[maxlength]; where maxlength is appropriate to your problem, probably a #define constant at the top of the program. How to use slice capacity and length in Go because that size is part of the type. Other parts of our program won’t be able to read the title or description, they’ll just know that we’ve got a pile of information. In nearly all cases, Constructors ( config() ) have to be public. type StringHeader struct { Data uintptr // string value Len int // string size } The string’s characters (pointed by the Data field) are stored in data sections of the executables, as a series of UTF-8 encoded characters without null-terminators. js based module to depend on anything node-gyp based stuff. 471436120 -0400 +++ u-boot/cpu/ralink_soc/Makefile 2012-09-14 20:41:39. Boolean and complex types are notably absent from C, although C adopts the convention for Boolean values that numeric zero means false, and numeric nonzero means true. C++/CX represents a Windows Runtime string as a reference type; while C++/WinRT projects a string as a value type. A forward reference is only allowable when the compiler is asked to permit a pointer to a class object. HTML's multimedia features allow authors to include images, applets (programs that are automatically downloaded and run on the user's machine), video clips, and other HTML documents in their pages. It does convert it to a completely legal string :) To me a legal string is a series of printible chars (letter, number, punctuation, plus '\r', ' ', '\t', ending with a single '\0'. string: get_json_object(string json_string, string path) It extracts json object from a json string based on json path specified, and returns json string of the extracted json object. In C if you want to declare a variable, you have to tell it what type of thing it is going to hold. You've got the right idea. 10 responses to “Runtime Type Checking in C++ without RTTI” Ben Craig May 24, 2010 at 4:14 pm Since you seem concerned with performance, you should strongly consider using make_shared instead of initializing your shared_ptr with a “new” expression. \$\begingroup\$ For us to really answer this question, you really need to add some of the code from the class's methods that actually use the struct. I got my feet in to go but I'm stuck. js via node-ffi or node-ffi-napi. In the editor you've been provided with a Tag type. isco Old Dance Party School Disco Pants Halloween Women Costume Groovy Retro. Thats not practical because every sender has other sensors/data. But that gets tedious especially with data structures that have a lot of these kinds of pointers. In 2008 Apple announced and released the iPhone SDK 2. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. An array should contain only one type of data. now u need to parse the packets right. class MyPrintable: CustomStringConvertible {// CustomStringConvertible gives us the ability to add something similar to toString() from java. Note the semicolon at the end. If it has to be decided at run-time please use dynamic arrays. While declaring the function, our function is taking a pointer of a strucutre 'st'. handler, so Go’s HTTP server will be able to accept the app. There are two ways you can create value types, in C#, using the enum keyword and the struct keyword. If declarations defined later in the interface use the type struct vector_struct, SWIG knows that this is the same as Vector and it generates the appropriate type-checking code. Often in previous chapters we have made dedicated types for this to spy on function/method invocations but in this case we can just pass in an anonymous function for fn that closes over got; We use an anonymous struct with a Name field of type string to go for the simplest "happy" path. In this post, we take a closer look at immutable data with the @struct annotation and how it makes immutable data classes much easier! Immutable Data With FunctionalJ. IO Imports System. Load balancers wrap subscribers, and select one endpoint from many. I'll take a root though the code see if i can spot anything. This can be used in handling binary data stored in files or from network connections, among other sources. , /fatfs and /nffs). One of the coolest features of ColdFusion 8 is its new implicit struct and array creation. You have a variable blunt of type struct two. So I thought I would convert the data I need to a byte array and send it over. Using the ms_struct attribute instead of compiling with -mms-bitfields reproduces the packing issue, while using the gcc_struct attribute prevents the issue from showing up even under -mms-bitfields. It's free to sign up and bid on jobs. invisible null character at the end of each string of characters. the user has more than 5 char in his string and declare 5 in my struct and in autoit struct and in my dll how I am supposed to make the buffer larger without re compiling the dll or the autoit exe. Unfortunately there’s no such thing as a ref local variable, so you’ll need to use pointers for that purpose. You can get at the individual components using the. Middlewares are great. You can type-cast your struct to be of the “type” of a protocol it adopts, but since the rest of type-casting relates to subclasses or superclass, those capabilities don’t apply to structs. simpleString`, except that top level struct type can omit the ``struct<>`` and atomic types use ``typeName()`` as their format, e. Place the cursor at the very top of the page, and click the "down" arrow (of type F3, it does the same thing). If declarations defined later in the interface use the type struct vector_struct, SWIG knows that this is the same as Vector and it generates the appropriate type-checking code. Just don’t specify those extra fields in your struct. from_array() or table. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: